Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Asch deceived their participants about the purpose of the study and the role of other participants. Do we respect the wishes of the individual and enhance prejudice or do we look to the greater good and ignore the individual? A few decades ago, Europe had been mentally scarred by the atrocities committed during the Second World War, and was looking for answers. This could potentially link to the protection of participants guideline too, they could become psychologically damaged as a result of pressure, stress etc. The research participant first read the list of words to the learner and then began testing him on his learning. What are the Zimbardo Prison Experiment Ethical Issues and Would the Same Experiment be Allowed to Take Place Today? Across all these papers, Asch found the same results: participants conformed to the majority group in about one-third of all critical trials.
In turn, each person had to say out loud which line A, B or C was most like the target line in length. Let me out of here! There were 18 trials in total and the confederates gave the wrong answer on 12 trails called the critical trials. If the participant has been deceived then it is important that they are told at this stage the true nature of the experiment. So we see it is a complex situation. Patterning of the minority's responses and their influence on the majority. Using a line judgment task, Asch put a naive participant in a room with seven confederates.
Society at large requires some conformity even here in C … alifornia! For example, the experimenter may be in a position of authority over the participant, who may be reluctant to withdraw from the experiment once it has started for fear of looking foolish. And finally we have Milgram's study of obedience from 1963 cited in Martin G. The resources on this page address many of those problems and the case studies used in these resources provide excellent examples of these types of issues. Debriefing, particularly important in cases of deception, takes place at the end of the experiment. The results of the actual experiments were themselves quite shocking. Key words: A history of debriefing in social psychology.
After the line task was presented, each student were verbally announce which line either A, B, or C matched the target line. For example, in the participants thought they there giving electric shocks to a learner when they answered a question wrong. There were also many questions raised about the implications of the experiments. Asch's study also only used males while this study additionally used females. Asch's study became a paradigm study, but a major criticism was that of demand characteristics- the confederates weren't trained actors and therefore participants may have realised that the confederates answers weren't real and so just pretended to conform, as that is what they thought the researcher wanted them to do. This is somewhat pointless and goes against what Milgram was originally trying to discover.
This makes for a very clear-cut division, but has been opposed with the comparison between this stance and older stances against humans of African descent seen as subhuman for centuries by Europeans and treated as such , women, humans of Asian descent, humans of various sexual orientation and identity, etc. Remember, if you are doing research for a similar essay title do not quote this one. Overall, Asch's study has some ethical issues, but not enough to warrant much criticism. Asch was interested in the factors that created conformity and investigated this through various experiements. But society has changed a great deal since then, and people are possibly less conformist today.
It was intended to study whether ordinary people would follow orders they considered to be immoral. But we also are very eager to conform if we are uncertain in order to gain peace of mind Sherif's study. This means that study has low ecological validity and the results cannot be generalised to other real life situations of conformity. The study may also have caused the participants to experience some distress because when they were debriefed afterwards and found out the aim, they may have felt very embarrassed and mad that they weren't told about it before. The teachers continually told the latter group that they had stutters. So in conclusion it s alright to deceive if the cause is adequate, there is no alternative, the true issue would not offend, embarrass or harm the participant and they are fully debriefed and followed up with active intervention if needs be. I also agree with the fact that for many experiments such as Milgram's deception is the only way.
In Sherif's study where the task is ambiguous, participants may appear to be conforming but are in fact responding to demand characteristics. Asch's findings may only apply to American men because he didn't take gender and culture differences into account. The experiments also looked at the effect that the number of people present in the group had on conformity. One school of thought makes little distinction between the value of human life and animal life - this is the foundation of the philosophy of animal rights. The videos also contain additional information about research ethics in general. The confederate was an actor and would mimic the pain involved as if he was actually receiving the shocks.
Perrin and Spencer 1980 carried out an exact replication of the original Asch experiment using British engineering, mathematics and chemistry students as participants. Here a participant was asked to apply shocks to a confederate if they gave the wrong answer to a question. A third study by Smith J. I told you I had heart trouble. When people view the others in the group as more powerful, influential, or knowledgeable than themselves, they are more likely to go along with the group. Those that were in on the experiment would behave in certain ways to see if their actions had an influence on the actual experimental participants. I wasoffered a higher paying position for my trouble, but informed noaction would take place against the person in question.