Under Section 23 : Officials of the state boards can enter any premises for the purpose of examining any plant, record, register etc. It has responsibilities to conduct monitoring of water and air quality, and maintains monitoring data. Notwithstanding contained in this Act, if the State Government, after consultation with, or on the recommendation of the State Board is of the opinion that the provisions of this Act need not apply to the entire state, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, restrict the application of this Act to such area or areas as may be declared therein as water pollution, prevention and control area or areas and thereupon the provisions of this Act shall apply only to such area or areas. This is provided under sections 47 and 48 of the Water Act. Discharge of effluents is permitted by obtaining the consent of the State Water Board, subject to any condition they specify. Industrial Usage of Water The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Cess Act, 1977 is a Central Act of Parliament which provides for the levy and collection of cess on water consumed by industries and local authorities. Eg: water from tannery waste, industrial wastewater from electroplating industries Industries that have a treatment plant installed for treating their effluents can get a rebate of 70% on the cess payable.
Those industries that had installed a suitable treatment plant for the treatment of industrial effluents can get a rebate of 70 per cent on the cess payable. Specific pollution prevention approaches Pollution prevention approaches can be applied to all potential and actual pollution-generating activities, including those found in the energy, agriculture, federal, consumer and industrial sectors. . The act permits restricted grazing in sanctuaries but prohibits the same in national parks. This includes the power to direct the closure, prohibition or regulation of any industry, operation or process; or the stoppage or regulation of supply of electricity, or water or any other service. In processing, whereby water gets polluted and pollutants are easily biodegradable. Section 4: Provides for the affixing of Meters and prescribes that for measuring the quantity of water, used by any person or any industry or by local authorities, the persons liable to pay cess should install water meters of such standards and at such positions as may be prescribed.
Among the 1019 stations, 592 are on rivers, 65 on lakes, 17 on drains, 13 on canals, 5 on tanks, 3 on creeks, 3 on ponds and 321 are groundwater stations. All assessment orders shall specify a due date for payment. Subject to the provisions of this Act, and to any direction that the Central Government may give in this behalf, a Board may issue any directions in writing to any person, officer or authority, and such person, officer or authority shall be bound to comply with such directions. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Cess Act was enacted in 1977, to provide for the levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons operating and carrying on certain types of industrial activities. Presently the Member Secretary, State Pollution Control Board is the assessing and collecting authority. Each zonal office caters to a fixed number of states.
It covers 200 Rivers, 60 Lakes, 5 Tanks, 3 Ponds, 3 Creeks, 13 Canals, 17 Drains and 321 Wells. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The State Government may, simultaneously with the constitution of the State Board, make rules to carry out the purposes of this Act in respect of matters not falling within the purview of section 63: Provided that when the State Board has been constituted, no such rule shall be made, varied, amended or repealed without consulting that Board. Any person who fails to comply with a directive of the State cannot, however, entertain in suit under this Act unless the suit is brought by, or with the sanction of the State Board. If at any place where any industry, operation or process, or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto is being carried on, due to accident or other unforeseen act or event, any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter is being discharged, or is likely to be discharged into a stream or well or sewer or on land and, as a result of such discharge, the water in any stream or well is being polluted, or is likely to be polluted, then the person in charge of such place shall forthwith intimate the occurrence of such accident, act or event to the State Board and such other authorities or agencies as may be prescribed. The Board may establish or recognize a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section efficiently, including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents. Protection of action taken in good faith.
The relevant provisions of this and are given as below: Under Section 16: Functions of Central Board: 1. Power to give directions Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, but subject to the provisions of this Act and to any directions that the Central Government may give in this behalf, a Board may, in the exercise of its powers and performance of its functions under this Act, issue any directions in writing to any person, officer or authority, and such person, officer or authority shall be bound to comply with such directions. The board has approximately 500 full-time employees including engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists. It advises the central government to prevent and control water and air pollution. No court shall take cognizance of any offence except on a complaint made by any person who has given notice of not less than sixty days, in the manner prescribed, of the alleged offence and of his intention to make a complaint to the Board or officer authorized by the Board.
Among other things, the Act provides for constitution of central and State Boards for preventing water pollution, power to take water samples and their analysis, discharge of sewage or trade effluents, appeals, revision, minimum and maximum penalties, publication of names of offenders, offences by companies and Government departments, cognizance of offences, water laboratories, analysis etc. The main objectives of the Water Act are to provide for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution and the maintenance or restoration of the wholesomeness of water. Prevention practices are essential for preserving wetlands, groundwater sources and other critical ecosystems - areas in which we especially want to stop pollution before it begins. Where a sample has been sent for analysis under clause e of sub-section 3 or sub-section 4 of section 21 to any laboratory mentioned therein, the Government analyst referred to in that sub-section shall analyse the sample and submit a report in the prescribed form of the result of the analysis in triplicate to the Central Board or, as the case may be, the State Board which shall comply with the provisions of sub-section 2. This cess is collected with a view to augment the resources of the Central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974. The section further states that No person shall knowingly cause or permit to enter any other matter which may impede the flow of water of the stream causing pollution of any kind.
Functions of Central Board: 1. Citizen needs to develop a watchdog force to inform authorities to appropriate actions against different types of water pollution. What restriction does the Water Act impose on private citizens with respect to courts taking cognizance of offences under the Water Act? Where under this Act, any conditions have been imposed on any person while granting consent under section 25 or section 26 and such conditions require such person to execute any work in connection therewith and such work has not been executed within such time as may be specified in this behalf, the State Board may serve on the person concerned a notice requiring him within such time not being less than thirty days as may be specified in the notice to execute the work specified therein. Individuals can also do several things to reduce water pollution such as using biodegradable chemicals for household use, reducing the use of pesticides in gardens, and identifying polluting sources at work places and in industrial units where oil are or other petroleum products and heavy metals are used. The Government has power to restrict any unit, and to take samples of effluents and get them analysed in Central or State laboratories.
On receipt of the report under sub-section 1 , one copy of the report shall be sent by the Central Board or the State Board, as the case may be, to the occupier or his agent referred to in section 21, another copy shall be preserved for production before the court in case any legal proceedings are taken against him and the other copy shall be kept by the concerned Board. The Act was last amended in 2003. What are the functions of the Central Pollution Control Board under the Water Act 1974? Qualification — Person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to the environmental protection or having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid. Section 5: Of the Act lays down that every person liable to pay cess shall have to submit cess returns in the proforma and periodicity as prescribed for this purpose. Discharge of effluents is permitted by obtaining the consent of the State Water Board, subject to any condition they specify.
The Board may establish or recognise a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section efficiently, including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents. It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Eg: water from slaughter houses -Processing pollutants are not biodegradable and are toxic. No changes have been applied to the text. The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Government analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or specified under sub-section 1 of section 52. It is responsible for maintaining national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with , tribal, and. Play — Experience the ultimate balance House.