Towards better tools: Part 2


TL; DR: Organize tools in layers, and support user defined output formatting.

In yesterday’s post, I hypothesized the ways in which forensic tools are commonly used. Today, I’ll suggest how tools might be structured to maximize their usefulness. The goal is to encourage wider thought on the matter, and ultimately, to improve the tool landscape.

To summarize, there are three common ways to use forensic tools:

Based on my experiences designing Python tools for parsing various forensic artifacts, I have begun to move to the following strategy. This strategy maximizes the usefulness of the tools in each of the cases. Please compare and contrast with your own solutions, and let’s discuss it further!

Layer code like cake (technical)

All scripts implement their functionality in modular components, and each functional tool is a simple wrapper around a lower-level function or class. For instance, the implementation of list-mft is basically for each entry in mft.mft_enumerator(): print(entry), and the interesting stuff is found in This makes it trivial to import parsers into other projects or IPython (interactive, exploratory) sessions. The antithesis of this structure is a script with lots of global state and without the main wrapper if __name__ == "__main__": main().

The wrappers in the standalone tools do not handle output formatting. Instead, outputting is handled at the outermost level, in the main() function. Therefore, the parser must return its results as a collection of pure Python objects. This forces a separation between the parser and the formatter (the “model” and the “view”, in MVC world). This is a Good Thing.

For example, consider the scenario in which a user requests a new output format. Using the proposed tool structure, the developer only needs to touch code in the main() function. Probably, they add an extra if/else statment and iterate over a bunch of items. If instead output is generated incrementally within the parser, tracking output format state (“am I outputting XML or CSV?”, “Did I start the item’s XML open tag yet?”) becomes burdensome and complex.

Here’s an outline of an example of this tool structure:

def get_mui_cache_entries(registry):
    @param registry: An open Registry.Registry from which to parse.
    @return: A generator of MUICacheItem instances

def main(filename, output_format):
    for item in get_mui_cache_entries(Registry.Registry(filename)):
        if output_format == "csv":
            sys.stdout.write("%s, %s\n",,
        elif output_format == "tsv":

if __name__ == "__main__":
    import sys
    main(sys.argv[1], sys.argv[2])

Sane defaults for all (semi-technical)

By default, each of my tools will support a default human-readable format and a JSON format. The human readable format is implemented using the same technique described in the following paragraphs, and the JSON format is trivial to generate — because the parsers generate pure Python objects, the output formatter looks like:


User defined formatting to the rescue (important)

That covers 80% of uses. But, it doesn’t address the issue of many different users requesting different output formats. So, a tool supports user defined output formatting, too. For instance, a user may not be satisfied with CSV, and want XML instead. They simply supply the following formatter to generate XML:

{% raw %} {{ }} {% endraw %}

They can do this either directly on the command line, or in an additional text file. Clearly, when any bugs are ironed out, the user can share the format with their friends and collaborate.

This followup post demonstrations additional formats and sample output. If you have a clever idea for an output format, send it this way and I’ll post it, too.

Sounds hard (semi-technical)

Although this sounds difficult to implement, its actually quite easy. Of course, a solution is to climb on the shoulders of giants. There are already a number of production ready libraries that provide complex string templating features. Many were developed to support web application frameworks, like Django, in which dynamic content needed to be rendered with a consistent structure. Fortunately, the packages are well-designed and work comparably when generating non-HTML plain text.

My tools depend on the Jinja2 string templating library. Users can provide custom templates that describes how to format their forensic artifact using the Jinja2 mini-language. This language supports looping over collections, reaching into complex structures, and formatting objects in a variety of useful ways (such as adding commas to large numbers, and prettifying dates). From the developer’s perspective, adding Jinja2 templating support required less than 10 additional lines of code.

Wrapping up

I think that supporting user defined formatting to command line tools opens up some interesting possibilities, including encouraging end users to contribute to a project. For instance, one might be able to cultivate a community or website that collects output formats successfully used during investigations. Also, it frees up the developer to focus on parsing and fits the successful UNIX philosophy of doing one thing really well.

So, what do you think? Would you like to easily update the output format of the tools you use? Not simply swapping columns around, but by mixing and matching rows to highlight anomalies. To me, it sounds like something to explore further. Share your thoughts with me and others, and maybe we’ll come up with an even better idea.